I was born on October 27 (o. s.) 1837 in the village of Kwareli (*1), in the district of Telavi, in the province of Tiflis in the region comprising also the district of Signakh, called Cakheti. My father (Grigol) was a man of some education, he served as an officer in the Nizhegorod dragoons and had a good knowledge of the Russian language.
My mother was remarkable for her intimate acquaintance with the Georgian literature of her day, she knew almost by heart nearly all the poetry and all the ancient tales and stories then to be found in manuscript and print. She loved to read in the evenings to us her children stories and tales, and after reading would tell them over again in her own words and in the next evening whoever of us repeated best what he had heard the night before was rewarded by her praise, which we greatly prized.
I began my studies by learning my native Georgian language with the deacon of the parish at the age of eight. This deacon was distinguished for his knowledge of Georgian; he was famous as a good reader of the holy books and was especially gifted with the fascination of a splendid narrator. His stories, suited to the childish comprehension in form and substance, dealt with separate episodes of the religious, but more particularly the civic history of our country and consisted of narrations of various heroic exploits in defence of the faith and fatherland. Many of these tales left an impression on my memory and served me many years afterwards as subjects for a poem, "Dimitri the Self-sacrificing" and a short Christmas story. Some passages in my Story of a Beggar exhibitmarks of this influence. I learned my lessons at the deacon's with the peasant children of my native village, of whom there were only five or six as far as I recollect. We all lived at home and only came from morning till midday. So far as I remember we only spent an hour a day learning to read and write, and all the rest of the time till noon was spent in games under the supervision and guidance of the deacon, and especially, in listening to his alluring stories.
In my eleventh year my father took me to Tiflis and sent me to Raevski and Hacke's boarding-school, then the best of all the private schools in Tiflis. I was fifteen when from this Boarding-school I proceeded to the fourth class in the Tiflis Grammar School, still remaining as a boarder in the former house, which was now managed by Hacke alone.
Hacke was a German, a thoroughly educated man in every way. He had been engaged from Germany by Neidhart, who was at that time commander of the detached Caucasian Corps, for the education of his children, and after the termination of his engagement with Neidhart he opened a boarding school with Raevski who had been previously engaged in educational work in Tiflis. Hacke, though, strict and exacting, was so paternally attentive to his pupils, so painstaking and anxious for their moral and intellectual development, that he devoted to then nearly all, his time after school hours, conversing with them, diverting them with music, giving them improvised concerts on the pianoforte, which he played to perfection.
Having gone through the eighth class of the Grammar School and not passed the final examination in 1857 I entered the University of St. Petersburg as a student of the then-existing cameral section of the Faculty of Jurisprudence, and in 1861, when I was in my fourth year of residence, I left the University in consequence of the so-called "Student Affair" (political) of that period.
In 1863 I founded the journal "Sakarthvelos Moambe" (Georgia's Messenger) which only lasted a year. In the same year 1863 I married Princess Olga Guramishvili.
At the beginning of 1864, when the reform for the liberation of the peasants in the district of the Viceroy of the Caucasus was planned, I was sent to act in the province of Kutais as official private Secretary to the Governor General of Kutais, in order to determine the nature of the mutual relations between landlords and peasants arising from the servile dependence of the latter on the former.
In November of the same year, 1864, the liberation of the peasants from servile dependence had already been effected in the province of Tiflis and I was appointed Arbitrator of the Peace in the Dushet district of the province of Tiflis and in that office I remained down to the year 1868, when upon the introduction of the new judicial organization in the Caucasus I was given the office of Justice of the Peace in the same district of Dushet. In this latter office I remained till 1874.1 think it may not be superfluous to remark here that the nobility of the province of Tiflis, having received on the abolition of servile dependence an imperial grant for the personal liberation of the peasants, a part of this grant was allotted for the establishment of a credit institution, capable of meeting the need for a regularly organized system of credit, and especially with the proviso that its profits should be exclusively devoted to the education and instruction of the children of the nobility of the province of Tiflis. After much hesitation in this search for a suitable form of credit institution, the nobility in 1874, on my advice, decided upon the establishment of a Land Bank and entrusted a special Committee, of which I was elected a member, to draw up the statute .The statute formulated by the committee in accordance with the models supplied by the Government for their guidance and passed in the same year 1874 by the nobility differs from all other statutes of land banks in this noteworthy peculiarity, that all the profits of the Bank, excluding the obligatory deductions on account of sundry capital sums, are applied to the satisfaction of the common needs not only of the landowning nobility but of the agricultural population of the province of Tiflis. Thus, the Land Bank of the Tiflis Nobility is probably the only agrarian credit institution in all the Russian Empire whose statute entirely eliminates the personal interest of gain for the sake of attaining aims of a social character.
In the same year 1874 the nobility commissioned me to proceed to St. Petersburg and procure the confirmation of the statute they had passed and in consequence of this I retired from the Government Service.
The statute with the above mentioned peculiarity was confirmed by Government in 1875, From that year the Bank began its operations and from a founder's capital of. only 240 000 roubles ( £ 24 000) it has now (1902) reached such a position that it yields a yearly profit of over 360 000 roubles (£ 36 000), in spite of the fact that all the founder's capital subscribed by noblemen, has already been paid back to the nobility. From the day of the opening of the Bank down to the present time I have been President of the Board of the Bank. This office is elective and tenable for a term of three years.(*2)
In 1877 I founded a weekly Georgian newspaper "Iveria", which afterwards became a monthly magazine, and from 1885 a daily political and literary paper. In 1902 I handed over the paper to another person who now edits it.
Of my works in translations by various hands there are in Russian only some short verses and one poem "The Hermit" in Mr. Tkhorzewsky's version. The Russian translations of my verses are partly comprised in a separate collection published in Tiflis, and partly appeared in "Russkaya Mysl", "Zhivopisnoe Obozrenie" "Viestnik Evropy" and I forget where else.
My poem "The Hermit" was translated into English (verse) by Miss Marjory Wardrop and also into French (prose).German translations of some of my short pieces in verse were put into the collection first published at Leipzig in 1886 by Arthur Leist under the title "Georgesche Dichter" and re-issued at Dresden in 1900. Critical notices duly appeared in the local Russian newspapers "Kavkaz" and "Novoe Obozrenie", and as well as I can recollect, in the metropolitan journals "Russkaya Mysl" and "Zhivopisnoe Obozrenie", also in another Moscow periodical the name of which, to my regret I have forgotten.
Abroad, criticisms were inserted in some German periodicals including, the "Litterarisches Echo" and in the "Academy" and the Italian review "Nuova Antologia" No. VI of 1900 Notices with reference to my public and literary work are found in "Le Caucase Illustre", Tiflis 1902.
In 1877 I was elected Vice President of the Imperial Agricultural Society and held that office for some time, and I was elected President of the Georgian Dramatic Society from 1881 to 1884. I am President of the Society for the Propagation of Literacy among the Georgians since 1886, I was member of the committe of the Society of the Nobility of the province of Tiflis for the Assistance of Necessitous Scholars. I have taken part, whether by invitation or election, in almost all committees charged with the ...
My literary labours began in 1857 with the printing in the magazine "Tziscari" (The Dawn) of short verses, then my works appeared in the newspaper "Droeba" (Time), "Crebuli" (the Garner), in "Sakartvelos Moambe" (Georgian Messenger) and "Iveria" both of which I founded) and partly in the now-existing magazine "Moambe".
In addition to shorter verses, I have written some poems: "Episodes from the Life of a Brigand", "The Vision", "Dimitri the Self Sacrificing'; "The Hermit" and a dramatic sketch "Mother and Son". Of my tales I may mention: 1) "Katzia Adamiani?!" (Is that a man?!) printed in 1863 in "Georgia's Messenger" and afterwards published in Petersburg by the Society of Georgian students, 2) "The Story of a Beggar" printed in the same journal and in the same year, which also appeared as a separate work; 3) Scenes from the early days "of the emancipation of the peasants", printed in 1865 in "Crebuli" and afterwards published separately. 4) "Letters of a Traveller" printed in 1864, also in "Crebuli", 5) "The Widow of the House of Otar" 1888; 6) "A Strange story" printed in "Moambe", 7) "A Christmas Story" 8) "The Four Gibbets" in "Iveria".
I translated Pushkin's "Propheth" Lermontov's "Prophet", "Hadji Abrek" and "Mary" and Turgeniev's "Verses in Prose" and some verses of Heine and Goethe. I also translated, in collaboration with Prince Ivane Machabeli, Shakespeare's "King Lear". I took part in the restoration of the original text of the famous Georgian poem "The Man in the Panther's Skin", also in editing: a) the poems of Prince Alexandre Chavchavadze, b) the poems of Vakhtang Orbeliani", for which I wrote a preface, c) The ancient Georgian story of "Vis and Ramin".
In addition to these literary works I have written many short articles of political journalistic, critical and polemical character, also articles on educational questions. Among the most bulky of the journalistic publications may be mentioned "The Khizan Question", "Life and Law", "Concerning Brigandage in Transcaucasia". Of the critical and polemical articles may be mentioned two which were printed as feuilletons in "Iveria": "And You Call that History?!" (on Rustaveli) and "Armenian Savants and Outcrying Stones" the last of these recently appeared in a ussian translation and caused much ado in the local Armenian press.
Of the edition of my complete collected works undertaken by the local Georgian Publishing Society, so far 4 volumes have appeared out of the proposed 10 or 12 volumes. The volumes already published include verses, tales, stories and dramatic sketches.
(*1) The translator's style and spelling of Georgian and Russian names are preserved intact.
(*2) By 1907 a private Grammar school was supported from the profits of the Bank, with a boarding - house for children of the poorest among the nobility and a day school for children of all classes; also an agricultural school for children of all classes.
Translated by Marjory and Oliver Wardrops
The book features some works of Ilia Chavchavadze translated into English by brother and sister Oliver and Marjory Wardrop. The translations have not lost their literary value to the present day. The publication is intended as a gift to the Georgian reader in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the birth of the outstanding Georgian writer and public figure. Text prepared for publication, with a preface and notes by Ia Popkhadze. Edited by Dr. Guram Sharadze.
The special interest shown by, Marjory and Oliver Wardrop for Georgian spiritual culture is well known. By translating a number of literary works they gave the versatile English reader an idea of Georgian literature with its centuries — old tradition.
The spiritual affinity of the Wardrops with Ilia Chavchavadze, a great son of Georgia, was not accidental. Their genuine sympathy was confirmed by the translation of the eminent Georgian writer's literary works, which they did with affection and reverence.
Hitherto the reading public was aware only of Marjory Wardrop's English translation of Ilia's "The Hermit" (London 1895). In recent years (1981, 1984) Prof. Guram Sharadze has discovered some other translations in the Wardrop collection of the Bodleian Library, at Oxford pointing to a broader scale of the translational activity of the Wardrops. Apart from "The Hermit", the following renderings of Ilia's prose are presented for the first time here: "Notes of a Journey from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis", "Is that a Man?!" (fragments), "The Sportsman's story" (several chapters)," Autobiography".
Chavchavadze's poetic heritage is represented by these titles: "Spring", "The Sleeping Maid", "Elegy", "Ah!... She — to whom My Dear Desires..." an extract from the poem "The Vision" ("O our Aragva"), "Bazalethi's Lake" (abridged).
The texts of these translations were prepared for publication according to the autographs preserved at Oxford, the xeroxed copies of which were brought from England by Prof. Sharadze and kindly transferred to the present writer for publication. The text of "The Hermit" is published according to the London edition of 1895, the latter now being a rare book.
Today the greatest merit of these translations would seem to lie in the inner warmth and affection with which they were done, which will always be remembered by the grateful Georgian people.
Professor Tengiz Simashvili
Iakob Gogebashvili Telavi State University, Georgia
Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
ISSN: 2706 – 8242 www.eresearchjournal.com
Vol 2: Issue III
Jul - Sep 2020
The archives of Georgia contain many interesting documents about Joseph Stalin. One of the most significant documents among them is a letter on September 5, 1907. It is mention, that somebody with last name Nizharadze was the suspect in Ilia Chavchavadze’s assassination. It is quite possible that this surname contains extremely important information to the study of Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin)’s biography. The point is that in 1908, Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin) was arrested in Baku with a false passport under the name of Gaioz Nizharadze. According to the archival materials which I have discovered so far, it becomes evident that the false passport under the name of Nizharadze was issued on April 7, 1906. On the one hand, such a coincidence of surnames directly indicates Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin)’s involvement in Ilia Chavchavadze’s assassination. However, on the other hand, while working on the archival documents in Georgia regarding Ilia Chavchavadze’s assassins: Iliko Imerlishvili, Ivane Inashvili, Pavle Fshavlishvili,
and Gigila Berbichashvili, I could not find any information about Joseph Jughashvili’s or “Nizharadze’s” involvement in Chavchavadze’s murder. Although the information and documents, examined in this article, are to some extent
contradictory, the analysis of them makes it evident that Joseph Jughashvili’s Biography is not sufficiently studied.
Keywords: The Georgian achieves, Murder of Ilia Chavchavadze, Joseph Stalin, Biography, Terrorists, Historiography
There are quite interesting materials about Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin) in archival materials of the murder of Ilia Chavchavadze. Ilia Chavchavadze was the great Georgian writer, sometimes called “Father of Nation”. On August 30, 1907, the killers awaited Ilia Chavchavadze’s phaeton on the road near Tsitsamuri and Saguramo villages, near Tbilisi capital of modern Georgia. Ilia Chavchavadze and his servant were killed and Ilia’s wife was brutally beaten.
According to archival and other historical documents, four or five people participated in the assassination of Ilia Chavchavadze. Today we know that the killers were Ivane Inashvili, Pavle Pshavlishvili, Gigla Berbichashvili, and “Imereli,” who is referred to as “One Imereli” in some documents, and “Imereli” in others. In one document he is called “the leader of Ilia Chavchavadze’s killers’ gang”. According to acceptable documents, the fourth killer under nickname “Imereli”, was Iliko Imerlishvili. He was an active member of the Bolshevik party in Georgia.
According to the memories of revolutionaries, Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin) participated in the meetings of “Red Detachments” where Gigla Berbichashvili and Iliko Imerlishvili were, and he had with them close relations. There is a question, who was the fifth member of the Ilia Chavchavadze killer group? I try to give the answer in my research.
For analyzing information archival documents I guided with the following methods and principles of modern scientific research:
i. Comparative Method – comparing historical objects with time, analyzing and revealing similarities and differences;
ii. System Method – making a generalized model by using materials found out during the process of investigation, which will be the reflection of the real situation taking, place in social interrelations and upheavals typical to historical process, or present-day situations;
iii. Retrospective Method – investigating past gradually, in order to find out genuine reasons for occurred historical events;
iv. Logical Method – making objective analysis about the situations in order to shed light on the historical development stages and define boundaries for separate historical ones;
v. Chronological-Problematic Method – studying problems of chronological occurrences thoroughly;
vi. Historical-Comparative Method – investigating the past from present including the current situation by using comparative analysis of historical events and processes.
I found out quite interesting materials about Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin) in “Ilia Chavchavadze’s (*1) Murder Investigation Case of Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department” kept in the Central Historical Archive of Georgia.
A few days after Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder, an operating officer of the Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department, someone called Pitskhelauri writes two letters to Piotr Evtushevsky, Head of Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department (*2). Actually they are unofficial notifications about the identity of the persons participating in this murder. Here is a translation of the Russian text (Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department Materials, 1907):
“Dear Piotr Alexandrovich! Ilia Mtskheteli resident of village Mtskheta, Dusheti District, should know about Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder. If he did not participate in the crime, then he will know who did it as he knows who commits such a crime, that’s why I suppose to arrest him. Besides, it is inevitable to arrest a driver of phaeton. As I’ve investigated he knows people who committed Chavchavadze’s murder.
September 4, 1907.”
This letter is interesting for the researchers as on 4 th September of 1907 it was known for the investigation that Bolshevik terrorist Iliko Imerlishvili was participating in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder. The fact is that Iliko Imerlishvili’s nickname in a terrorist organization, which was created by Social-Democrat Labour Party members in Tbilisi, “Mtatsminda Group” was “Ilia Mtskheteli.”
Accordingly, about the identity of Iliko Imerlishvili and “Ilia Mtskheteli” was known for the police, however, the investigation is not done in this regard. This letter, existing in the above-mentioned archive material, is followed by the second letter sent to Piotr Evtushevsky, head of Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department by Pitskhelauri, dated to the 5 th September of 1907 (See photo 1) (Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department Materials, 1907). Here is an English translation of the Russian text:
“Dear Piotr Alexandrovich! Nizharadze, a suspected in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder, is arrested in Borjomi; as I clarified secretly, a watch of the murdered was found with him; the driver of the Phaeton is arrested as well. They do not want to divulge about the watch as they think participants of the murder can be hid.
5 th of September 1907 year.”
I have mentioned about presumable participation of “Ilia Mtskheteli” and “Nizharadze” in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder in my book published in 2011 “Social-Democrat Bolshevik Terrorists, Murderers of Ilia Chavchavadze.” (*3) I think that by highlighting a number of newly found documents, in my research I clearly substantiated that both identities or nicknames – “Ilia Mtskheteli” and “Imereli“ – belong to Iliko Imerlishvili and Iliko Imerlishvili directly participated in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder. However, I did not publish the results and detailed analysis of my research carried out in order to identify “Nizharadze” – presumably participant in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder. I was trying to find additional materials as this surname may contain too much important information about Joseph Jughashvili’s (Stalin) biography.
The fact is that in 1908 Joseph Jughashvili was arrested in Baku with a fake passport on the name of Gaioz Nizharadze. There are copies of the archived documents related to this issue in archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. One of the papers is a secret letter sent by the head of Gendarmerie Department Baku Governorate on 31 st May of 1908 to the deputy head of Gendarmerie Department of Kutaisi Governorate in Batumi (Former Party Archive Materials, 1908):
“On 25 th March of the current year a person residing at Baku with a fake passport on the name of Gaioz Nizharadze was arrested in Baku. During interrogation Nizharadze confessed that his real name is Joseph Jughashvili and he is a peasant of Didi Lilo village society of Tbilisi Governorate and District, and in 1902 he was arrested by Gendarmerie Department of Kutaisi Governorate in Batumi for propagation and exiled in Yakutsk for three years; in 1904 he left the place of exile willfully.
Attaching the photo in order to identify the person depicted on it and personated himself as Joseph Jughashvili; if he was accused and what kind of information do you have about him.
Gendarmerie Rotmister ...”
This document is well known for the historians, but the document retrieved by me about “Nizharadze” participating in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder was unknown. That is why I have mentioned above that I would like to find out more materials and then publish my analysis. Unfortunately, because of objective reasons, which I will mention at the end of this paper, I did not have an opportunity to do this.
From currently discovered materials it becomes clear that a fake passport on the name of Gaioz Nizharadze was issued on 7 th April of the 1906 year (Островский, 2004). It is likely that Joseph Jughashvili “bought” it instead of the passport issued on the name of Giorgi Berdzenishvili which was seized by the police in March 1906.
There is another document which is related to the identity of Joseph Jughashvili and Gaioz Nizharadze. This is a copy of superscription (resolution) on a letter of the Head of Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate dated by 10 th June of 1908 and sent to the Head of Gendarmerie Department of Baku Governorate on 31 st May of 1908 (Former Party Archive Materials, 1908):
“... A person with a fake passport on the name of Gaioz Nizharadze residing at Baku confessed that his real name is Joseph Jughashvili – a peasant of Didi Lilo village society of Tbilisi Governorate and District, and in 1902 he was arrested by Gendarmerie Department of Kutaisi Governorate in Batumi for the activity in Tbilisi Social-Democratic Party and exiled in Yakutsk for three years; in 1904 he left the place of exile willfully.”
In this document, Joseph Jughashvili’s party affiliation is already specified. In the next document – a secret letter by Deputy Head of Gendarmerie Department of Kutaisi Governorate in Batumi Region dated on June 13, 1908, sent to the Head of Gendarmerie Department of Baku Governorate (Former Party Archive Materials, 1908):
“In response of your letter dated by May 31, 1908 I would like to let you know that Joseph Jughashvili, a peasant of Didi Lilo village society of Tbilisi Governorate and District, was arrested and exiled in Yakutsk for three years for propagation in 1902. In fact in my subordinate clause he was related with the investigation of an anti-state case (*4). His crime was that he was a main head and teacher for Batumi labors as well as labors’ revolutionary movement which was expressed in distribution of propaganda leaflets and calls for overthrow the existing system. According to the photo, none of my employee and police officers could identify Jughashvili because of passing a long period of time.
Also, I think, it is necessary to add that the above-mentioned Jughashvili, as it is shown in the materials collected under my guidance, as accused person, he was indeed related with the investigation on the case of “the circle of Tbilisi Social-Democrat Labor Party” lead by Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate and he was the main accused person.
As I mentioned, the copies of the above-mentioned documents are kept in Party Archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. And below mentioned document is a resolution of General-Major Kozintsev, ahead of Gendarmerie Department Baku Governorate, dated by August 4, 1908, and sent to the head of Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate (*5). The original document is kept in one of the materials of the Central Historic Archive of Georgia (See photo 2) (Caucasus Region Secret Police “Okhranka” Materials, 1908):
“Resolution No. 4287
On 4 th of August 1908 in Baku I, the head of Baku Gendarmerie Province Department, General-Major Kozintsev, discussed the correspondence in order to state the political reliability of a person who was named as Gaioz Nizharadze and in fact, who seemed to be Joseph Jughashvili, and I found out as follows:
On 25 th of March of the current year Baku Criminal Investigation Department arrested an unknown person who names himself as Gaioz Nizharadze resident of village Maglaki of Kutaisi district, and which had a party correspondence during searching. In the correspondence on this issue it was cleared out that Nizharadze is Joseph Jughashvili - a peasant of Didi Lilo village society of Tbilisi Province and District, and in 1902 he was related with the investigation by Kutaisi Gendarmerie Province Department according to article 251 and Tbilisi Gendarmerie Province Department, the first part of article 251. Finally the case has been solved administratively and Jughashvili was exiled in the Eastern Siberia under an open supervision of police and from where he has escaped and he was wanted by the police department circular on the 1 st of May 1904. Since 25 th of March of the current year Joseph Jughashvili is arrested in Baku prison. I suppose to exile Joseph Jughashvili for three years in the Eastern Siberia under supervision of police.
Verified: the above-mentioned correspondence should be sent to Baku in a disposal of city head.
Gendarmerie General-Major Kozintsev.” (*6)
Information about Joseph Jughashvili’s activity under the surname of “Nizharadze” and his arrest in March 1908 is provided not only in Lavrenti Beria’s book but in other authors’ works as well, including modern ones; I will mention this below. Now, I would like to note that in the archive document mentioned above considering “Nizharadze” as a killer of Ilia Chavchavadze, put things in a new light on the version drawn by a friend of the youth of Joseph Jughashvili (Stalin),
Iioseb Iremashvili. His point of view is expressed in his book published in 1932 in Berlin: “Stalin und die Tragödie Georgians” (Stalin and the Tragedy of Georgia). There is written that Joseph Jughashvili had a relation with Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder.
Consequently, on the one hand, the concurrence of the surnames directly suggests Joseph Jughashvili’s participation in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder. On the other hand, while working on the materials of Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder, while researching materials kept in Georgian archives about physical murderers of Ilia – Iliko Imerlishvili, Ivane Inashvili, Pavle Pshavlishvili, and Gigla Berbitchashvili, I could not find any other allusion about the participation of “Nizharadze” or Joseph Jughashvili in this murder.
As it is said in the above-mentioned document “Nizharadze”, suspected in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder, had Ilia’s watch with him when he was arrested. I consider it interesting for the reader that Stalin, as well as many other people, had a hobby – he was collecting the watches. In 1940-1949 years in the memories of ahead of “Sovnarkom” (*7) affairs I. E. Chaadaev mentioned that Stalin was collecting the watches and he had a collection including both wristwatches and the so-called pocket watches (Куманев, 2005). I have investigated identity, revolutionary activities of terrorists, and members of “Red Detachment” acting in that period in Borjomi and surrounding territories. One among them was Alexander Tsagurishvili – “Poria”. He was one of the most famous robbers and terrorists acting in Borjomi Gorge for that period of time. This person was connected and had friendly relations with the participants of Ilia Chavchavadze’s
murder, Bolshevik terrorist Iliko Imerlishvili, as well as with Kamo (Ter-Petrosyan), Batchua Kuprashvili, and others. However, I could not find any terrorist acting under the name of Gaioz Nizharadze or just Nizharadze in Borjomi in 1906-1908.
But, during my academic research, I was able to found out that in March 1908 there was someone Sh. Nizharadze, who was imprisoned at Bailov prison in Baku with Joseph Jughashvili. In one of the documents we read (Former Party Archive Materials, 1908):
“Stalin was imprisoned at Bailov prison, in the third cell, there was Sergo Orjonikidze in this cell as well... we wanted to escape from the third cell and we brought Sh. Nizharadze inside.”
I have discovered a photo of Shalva Nizharadze son of Vasil in the files of Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate, but I could not find any additional material about him yet and I still continue my investigation concerning this issue.
Herewith, I would like to mention that some authors of the works about Joseph Jughashvili variously refer “Nizharadze” in connection with him. For example, V. S. Kraskova in her book “Crimes into the Kremlin Walls” writes (Краскова, 1999):
“There were more people inside the dungeon in which Vishinski had appeared than it was possible. Bed was occupied by one person who was brought there in March. In police papers he was mentioned as Gaioz Nizharadze. Prisoners called him Koba, but his real name was Joseph Jughashvili, or Stalin. In the corner, a leg-bended, backwarded from everyone, he was learning “future language” Esperanto during the hours.” (*8)
M. S. Aldanov wrote (Гусляров, 2003):
“After a “failure” of the first revolution Lenin’s right hand in implementation of “expropriation” became – at that time already a well-known Caucasian “militant” with a revolutionary nicknames: “Koba”, “Davit”, “Nizharadze,” “Chizhikovi,”“Ivanovich” – almighty Russian dictator Joseph Jughashvili.”
According to another author, Soviet diplomat (*9) G. Z. Besedovski, a fugitive in the Western Europe in 1929, Stalin was in agreement about the actions of robberies with Lenin (Беседовский, 1931):
“Joseph Jughashvili – Koba ... started executing the orders of his leader and got a new nickname. Now he was called Nizharadze. He started leading a militant activity under this nickname. Soon Nizharadze found a very good leader for a combat organization, Armenian, Petrosyan.” (*10)
According to Besedovski, Nizharadze – Stalin was not only a leader of expropriations, but he was participating in those actions as well (Беседовский, 1931):
“Nizharadze fired the first bomb from the roof of Sumbatov’s house during the expropriation in Tbilisi at Erevan Square on June 13, 1907.”
For various reasons, I was unable to find the archival documents, which can prove the opinions of the above-mentioned authors. However, considering that a number of authors think that Stalin was directly leaded and participated in the expropriation on June 13, 1907. I think maintaining the research in this direction will give us quite interesting results. Moreover, several archive materials unknown until now were discovered, as well as separated documents which are about episodes concerning the participation of Joseph Jughashvili’s closest surrounding in the expropriation on Erevan Square on June 13, 1907.
As for Nizharadze, while investigating his identity, it was found that knyaz (*11) Nizharadze is mentioned concerning the event that is taking place on the edge of 1905 and 1906, in a book of a famous mystic and philosopher George Gurdjieff residing in Georgia – “Meetings with Famous People.” (*12) At the beginning of the 1900s “Knyaz Nizharadze” was a participant of an expedition in the countries of the Persian Gulf with George Gurdjieff in order to search a secret (esoteric) knowledge. According to existing notes, in the above-mentioned book of George Gurdjieff a separated chapter was dedicated to “Knyaz Nizharadze”, but for some reason, the author did not publish it.
Some of the authors consider Joseph Jughashvili under the name of “Knyaz Nizharadze,” as they think he was a student of George Gurdjieff and they interpret the relation of these two persons variously (*13). From the documents discovered during my research, it is clear that in March-April 1906 George Gurdjieff was teaching how to make explosives, barricade fighting in the city, and other “useful skills” to the group of six persons including Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
The teaching place was located on the second floor of a famous “Avlabari Illegal Printing House” building. Moreover, a number of sources name him as a police agent, a traitor of the so-called “Military – Technical Group” and “Avlabari Illegal Printing House”. Historian Alexander Kotchlavashvili dedicated broad research to this issue under the title – “His Real Identity,” which is kept in his archive and is not published yet. Furthermore, the author translated his research in Russian as well, but the title of the Russian version is “George Gurdjieff – an Agent of Tsarist “Okhranka” (Kotchlavashvili Personal Archive, Division of the Literature and Art Materials, 1961). According to Alexander Kotchlavashvili, George Gurdjieff was “a Secret Agent” of Tsarist Government. However, from the analysis of archive materials that I have found, George Gurdjieff espionage activities cannot be established for that period of time. On the contrary, as it turns out that he was in close relation with Social-Democrats. According to one source, George Gurdjieff was recommended as a teacher for “Military – Technical Group” by Bolshevik Mikha Botchoridze, and according to another one, by a famous Menshevik Silibistro Jibladze. It is interesting that during the Soviet period George Gurdjieff was named as a Menshevik (Заря Востока, 1937).
According to archive documents, George Gurdjieff lived in Khashuri (*14) in January 1906 (Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate Materials, 1906). Moreover, he was teaching the activists of the Social-Democrat Party including Vladimer (Valerian) Bilanov (Bilanishvili) how to make explosives. Presumably, Iliko Imerlishvili, Alexander (Sasha) Oboladze, Gigla Berbitchashvili (*15) and others together with him were mentioned as members of armed detachments
of both parties (*16) of Social-Democrats, created in order to avoid Armenian-Tatar clashes in autumn 1905. According to various accounts, these armed detachments were commanded by Isidore Ramishvili from the Menshevik party and Joseph Jughashvili from the Bolshevik party.
Therefore, it is interesting and noteworthy as some authors consider that not George Gurdjieff, or another person, or even a group of persons, but Joseph Jughashvili himself was an apostate of “Avlabari Illegal Printing House”. At the beginning “Avlabari Illegal Printing House” was located in a basement and in March-April, 1906 rooms of upper floors were used for “teaching” of the united so-called “Military – Technical Group” of Bolshevik-Mensheviks. In addition, if we consider that the closest friend of Joseph Jughashvili, Mikha Botchoridze (Botchorishvili) was connected to “Avlabari Illegal Printing House.” I think it is required to carry out additional research about this issue.
In foreign archives and fonds including France, the United State of America, there are a number of materials and documents which deals with Joseph Jughashvili’s (Stalin) biography. For example, from the analysis of materials that I have revealed, we can find more answers on issues concerning identification of “Nizharadze”, a presumable participant in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder, and his possible equating with Joseph Jughashvili in the Russian archive materials of Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Those materials can provide answers that can confirm or deny such identifications.
Although the information and documents, examined in this article, are to some extent contradictory, the analysis of them makes it evident that Joseph Jughashvili’s Biography is not sufficiently studied.
(*1) Ilia Chavchavadze was the great Georgian writer, sometimes called “Father of Nation”. According to archival and other historical documents, four people participated in the assassination of Ilia Chavchavadze. On August 30, 1907, the killers awaited Ilia Chavchavadze’s phaeton on the road between Tsitsamuri and Saguramo, a few kilometers away from Saguramo. Ilia Chavchavadze and his servant were killed and Ilia’s wife was brutally beaten.
(*2) Peotr Evtushevski was investigating Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder.
(*3) It is interesting that “Nizharadze” and “Ilia Mtskheteli” are mentioned as suspected in Ilia Chavchavadze’s murder in the table of contents of above-mentioned archive material.
(*4) There was a subordinate department of Tbilisi “Okhranka” in Batumi, so-called Batumi “Okhranka.”
(*5) Received on August 7, 1908
(*6) The copy of this document, as it seems from the analysis of the text that it is taken from Baku archive, I found it in Lavrenti Beria’s report published as a book, see: L. Beria. On the Issue of History of Transcaucasian Bolshevik Organization (Report at Tbilisi Party Meeting July 21-22, 1935). The 6 th edition. Tb. 1945, pp. 208-209. (In Georgian)
(*7) Council of Public Commissars of the Soviet Union.
(*8) В. С. Краскова. Преступления за кремлевской стеной. Минск. 1999, с. 113–114
(*9) the former left-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries
(*10) Kamo (Arshak Ter-Petrosyan).
(*12) The fact that George Gurdjieff was in Tbilisi during those years is confirmed by the archival documents that I have found. I will devote special research about this issue in another paper.
(*13) There are a number of materials about the relation of George Gurdjieff and Stalin-Nizharadze in currently published popular occult, esoteric literature, as well as in Internet resources. The speech is about the topic such as esoteric-mystical schools, occult practice
(*14) Mikhailovo at this time.
(*15) They all were Bolsheviks.
(*16) Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
Photo 1 Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department Materials, 1907
Photo 2 Caucasus Region Secret Police “Okhranka” Materials, 1908
Caucasus Region Secret Police “Okhranka” Materials. (1908). Secret documents and materials. The Georgian Central Historical Archives. Fond 94. Description 1. Case 157, p. 34
Former Party Archive Materials, (1908). Relation with prisoners. Archive of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. Division II. Fond 8. Description 2 (I). Case 42, p. 33-39
Former Party Archive Materials. (1908). Copies of secret documents. Archive of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, Division II. Fond 8. Description 5. Case 207, p. 27, 28, 53
Gendarmerie Department of Tbilisi Governorate Materials. (1906). Documents from region. The Georgian Central Historical Archive. Fond 153. Description 1. Case 761, p. 51
Jurakhonovich, K. S. (2020). Pilgrimage Tourism in Uzbekistan; Problems and Solutions. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2 (II), pp. 262-265
Kotchlavashvili Personal Archive. (1961). George Gurdjieff and secret police. Central Archive of the Contemporary History. Division of the Literature and Art. Fond 269, Case 3. p.1-37
Simashvili, T. (2020). Fake Grave of Stalin’s Father and Modernity: Materials for Biography of Joseph Stalin. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2 (III), pp.
Tbilisi Criminal Investigation Department Materials. (1907). Murder of Ilia Chavchavadze, The Georgian Central Historical Archive. Fond 97. Description 2. Case 35, p. 25, 26.
Беседовский Г., З. (1931). На путях к термидору. Париж. с. 350, 351
Гусляров Е. (2003). Сталин в жизни: систематизированный свод воспоминаний современников. Москва. с. 60
Краскова.В.(1999). Преступления за кремлевской стеной. Минск. с. 113–114
Куманев Г. (2005). Говорят сталинские наркомы, Смоленск., с. 512
Островский А. (2004). Кто стоял за спиной Сталина?, Москва. с. 291
Vladimer Narsia - Canon Lawyer, Cardiff University, UK. Chairman of Religious Dialogue for Peace in Georgia.
This policy brief analyzes the role of the Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) in Georgian society, particularly in the context of promoting the European integration process. The paper consists of three sections: sermons and preaching that influence European integration policy; the Church-State nexus as a non-secular alliance; and the weak international links of the GOC. All three sections look at the GOC from the perspective of its level of support for Georgia’s European integration policy. While Patriarch of Georgia Ilia II can be considered an ecumenical and equivalently a European minded leader based on some of his statements, his position has not been shared by all Georgian primates 1 and, in this paper, this ambiguity is considered a threat for the state’s European policy. Overall, the paper assumes that the GOC is in the primary stage of developing a clearer and more lucid positive role, which would allow it to avoid polarizing the society over the critical question of the European policy.
Georgia’s European integration policy is more than a political agenda; it also impacts social and cultural issues in the country, areas that traditionally fall under the influence of the GOC. The position of the Church is widely acknowledged and accepted in public debates in Georgian society, which makes it an important factor in the European integration process, as voters 2 may be influenced by anti-Western primates’ moods and their sermons against Europe.
This policy brief examines the GOC as a civil institution, which can serve the purpose of social consolidation or integration. That means that the Georgian government’s policy toward the Church, as well as the role of the Church as a supporting institution in the country’s European integration policy, are viewed as decisive in order to achieve the level of social harmony required to achieve the government’s aspiration to join the European family. Any delayed response to these sensitive issues could lead to the grievous result of splitting and polarizing society.
Sermons and Preaching
In Georgian society clerics carry considerable weight. Their commands are respected by
thousands of believers and quite often are taken as “priestly” advice without question. This tendency has been warmly welcomed by government officials. In this context, it is necessary to pay special attention to the sermons 3 that cultivating fears in Georgian society and present Europe as a threat for Georgian spiritual traditions. 4 The Holy Synod does not refute these sermons or clerics, which gives critics a basis to claim that GOC officially supports this position. Patriarch Ilia II follows the ongoing discussion 5 concerning the European integration process and, at times, speaks in favor of Georgia’s alignment with the EU. But not all of his statements support the integration process. In 2014 he strongly opposed the anti-discrimination law, which was viewed as a necessary step to secure the Association Agreement between EU and Georgia. 6 Primates are also concerned about the growing tendency of Georgians receiving their higher education in Europe. It was rather confusing when the Patriarch Ilia II expressed worries for young people receiving an education abroad. He called on Georgian parents to not send their
children abroad by pointing to Canada, and implicitly Western culture, as a threat for Georgian traditions. 7 Metropolitan Ioane Gamrekeli echoed the same concerns in 2015: “Instead of the verbal promises Europe demands from us, morally unacceptable relationships are to be acknowledged as a legal norm .” 8 The effective EU and NATO introductory programs organized by the Center for Development and Democracy (CDD) can be considered as a successful policy in response to the Church’s antagonist position toward Europe, illustrated by the Primates’ sermons. 9 But the locum tenens for Patriarch Illia II, Metropolitan Shio Mujiri, is still vague about his position on European values, based on his sermon concerning post-modernism and the European scholarly tradition. 10 To sum up, Georgian primates appear to offer tepid support for the government’s Euro-integration policy. The Holy Synod has made dozens of offensive sermons about Europe, 11 however, which may negatively impact on the European Integration process rather than support it due to the Church influence over the Georgian society.
The concept of secularism demands the separation of church and state at the institutional level. Even though the Georgian constitution stresses the principle of separation, its practical implementation is problematic and such founding principles are often misinterpreted by the Georgian authorities. Georgian Prime Minister Giorgi Kvirikashvili criticized secularism in its classical sense in 2017: “We believe that our nation features a unique model [of church-state relations] in the world.” 12 The medieval model known as “Church-State Symphony” is still alive in the modern theo-political discourse in Georgia and is often used by religious and political leaders to strengthen their established power. Previously, the Patriarch of Georgia also emphasized the role of religion in Georgian politics as an immutable fact and important for democratic society. 13
Since 1990s the stagnancy in Church-State relationships defends the status quo for GOC to become involved in the Georgian politics. For example, in 2017 the Patriarch’s proposal to discuss the idea of reinstituting the constitutional monarchy was immediately endorsed by Georgian authorities, 14 just as the debate over the decriminalization of drugs 15 was suspended following a proposal by the Church. 16 In both cases, the GOC has managed to exert influence on Georgian politics.
Since 2012 clerical interference in political affairs has become increasingly obvious. Clergies expect the authorities to make decisions in accordance with their confessional viewpoints, mainly anti-Western, arguing that: EU is an attack against Orthodoxy; if we are Orthodox, we should be aligned with Russia, not Europe, etc. 17 Even the Patriarch himself has praised the Russian President Vladimir Putin by saying that “Putin is a wise man who will remedy the situation in Georgia.” 18 Furthermore, in 2014 the Georgian government created the precedent of restoring a soviet-like institution, the State Agency for Religious Issues. The institution is keen to conduct oversight on religions, mainly minorities—an approach, which has been repeatedly criticized by religious communities and civil society 19 .
To summarize, the Church-State relationship in Georgia is closer to the medieval concept of partnership than the secular principles of institutional separation. Political and religious thought is of a particular concern of Church-State overlap. The Georgian government still lacks the readiness to exercise decision-making freedom, especially on issues where religion has a place but not legitimate power. In democratic states government officials separate their personal opinions about religious leaders from public policy. Their viewpoint can be taken along with others or simply rejected.
Weak international links
For the GOC, international links are essential to escape from Russian isolationism. Furthermore, it will be helpful for the Georgian government as well if the GOC makes supportive statements in various international religious forums regarding the state’s European integration policy. However, on May 20, 1997 GOC left the World Council of Churches (WCC) and Conference of European Churches (CEC), two of the leading European church forums and subsequently became a victim of Russian propaganda. 20 Today the GOC is reluctant to actively participate in any ecumenical or inter-faith dialogue formats. For instance, primates from the GOC are taking part in the International Commission for Anglican-Orthodox Theological Dialogue, as one of the ecumenical forums today. This commission issues official theological documents, which have been signed by all its participants including the GOC 21 , but the documents are never easily accessible if at all on the Church official web-pages and the events are not publicized. Furthermore, the Patriarch of Georgia has issued an extraordinary supportive call for Georgian Catholics living in the southern part of Georgia, stating: “Don’t forget that we are the same as
we believe in one God, the Farther, Son and Holy Spirit,” 22 but this position has not been supported by the official position of the GOC. For example, when fundamentalist GOC groups accused the Roman Catholic Pope of being a heretic during his 2016 23 visit to Tbilisi, the Church did not punish any member of the group.
The pan-Orthodox relationship is one of the main concerns of the GOC. In 2016 the GOC suddenly refused to participate in the Crete Counsel without providing a real explanation. 24 This came as a surprise to many Orthodox leaders and the Constantinople Patriarchate, 25 because the inter-faith and even pan-Orthodox relationships are assumed as a way of separating from Russian isolationism in which the GOC has been living for centuries.
Besides, the GOC does not promote Western theological studies. Those who receive diplomas from leading Western theological universities are denied positions in the GOC.
In brief, interfaith dialogue promotes the European values of mutual cooperation to come together across lines of faith and culture. This is a courageous call for religions in 21 st century, which breaks isolation and creates opportunities to learn how to coexistence. If it does not accept this dialogue, the GOC would be isolated from rest of the Christendom and abandoned only to the Russian Theo-imperialistic ideology, that employs the eschatological concept of the Russian state featuring as the “third (and the last) Rome”.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This policy brief presents a bird-eye view of the main problems on a specific set of issues. Based on this analysis, several conclusions can be drawn. First, GOC does not have a well-structured position toward the country’s Europeanisation process. This may negatively impact public opinion about the State’s euro-integration policy. Second, the modern practice of church-state relations in Georgia does not follow the principles of the separation of church and state that are guaranteed by the Georgian Constitution. These principles are abrogated by government officials who accept the Church’s position as “priestly” advice. Finally, the Georgian Orthodox Church’s isolationist, inter-faith policy negatively affects the European integration process, inter alia promoting western values in the Georgian society.
Recommendations for the GOC:
The Holy Synod should respond to inappropriate sermons.
Ecumenical cooperation of the GOC should be publicly reported.
Cooperation with advanced European universities should be improved.
A social doctrine, created in cooperation with the public sector, should be considered a
Recommendations for the government:
The “awkward marriage” between the Georgian Orthodox Church and the government
should be modified according to secular principles.
The Soviet policy regarding religious control, which is conducted by the State Agency for
Religious Issues, must end. The State Agency must only function as a promoter of inter-
religious activity and a facilitator of state-religion affairs.
The government needs to take steps to make sure that inter-religious study is taken
seriously at schools and universities to promote the cultural and religious mediation
process and support tolerance in Georgia's multi-religious society.
Recommendation for civil society:
The social doctrine, a manual for the GOC that outlines its relation with the “outer realm,” (the state and civil society) should be written in cooperation with the public sector. The document should cover the following issues: Church-State relationships; Church and Nationality; Christian Ethics and Human Rights; Church and Secular Education;
Christian Family and Morality; Church and Culture; Church and Inter-Faith/Inter-
Religious Dialogue; Church and Bioethics and etc.
Georgian Institute of Politics (GIP) is a Tbilisi-based non-profit, non-partisan, research and analysis organization. GIP works to strengthen the organizational backbone of democratic institutions and promote good governance and development through policy research and advocacy in Georgia.
The views and opinions expressed in this article are the author’s alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Georgian Institute of Politics.
HOW TO QUOTE THIS DOCUMENT:
Vladimer Narsia. "Church and Politics or Church in Politics: How does the Georgian Orthodox Church Impact Georgia’s European Integration Policy?", Policy Brief No. 14, Georgian Institute of Politics, May
Georgian Institute of Politics, 2018
Tel: +995 599 99 02 12
1 Primates are priests of very high rank in the Christian Church.
2 National Democratic Institute‘s poll (2017, June). Available at: https://new.ndi.org/sites/default/files/NDI%20poll_June_2017_Political_ENG_final.pdf
3 DFWatch. (2014, April 30). Orthodox Church against EU in Georgian parliament, Available at: http://dfwatch.net/orthodox-church-against-eu-in-georgian-parliament-57404-28332
4 (2018). მეუფე სპირიდონი 17 მაისის შესახებ. [Online Video]. (2018, May 23). Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYcAd0AwOxQ. (Accessed: 16 January 2018).; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21Kq0HypGX4
5 Patriarch’s response to Mr. Stefan Fule: “...I want to tell you that I am convinced in that for a long time already. See: Civil Georgia. (2014, March 4). Patriarch: 'Church Will Do Everything to Make Georgia EU Member. Available at: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=27008
6 Civil Georgia. (2014, April 28). Georgian Church Speaks Out Against Anti-Discrimination Bill. Available at: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=27175
7 Civil Georgia. (2010, October 3). Patriarch: 'Refrain from Sending Kids Abroad for Education. Available at: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=22722
8 Social Media: Facebook account- The Georgian Way.
9 CDD. (2017). Georgian Orthodox Church visits in Brussels. [Online Video]. 2 January 2017. Available from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btES1DiotG8&feature=youtu.be. (Accessed: 16 January 2018); See also:
“Georgia: Project Aims To Boost Orthodox Church’s Support For EU Integration”. Available at: http://gip.ge/georgia-project-aims-to-boost-orthodox-churchs-support-for-eu-integration/
10 Patriarch’s meeting with clergies and psychologists. 09 Mar 2018. See: http://patriarchate.ge/geo/katolikos-
patriarqis-shexvedra-samghvdeloebastan-da/ [Accessed: 11 March 2018]
11 Lekso Gelashvili. (2018). About Anti-Discrimination Law. [Online Video]. 1 May 2014. Available from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxwDmzoWihU&t=1432s+&+https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv=diu_PDIllvw. [Accessed: 16 January 2018].
12 Civil Georgia. (2017, July 26). CSOs: PM Kvirikashvili’s Church Statements ‘Irresponsible’, Available at:
13 “Kviris Palitra” N31 (224) 2-8 August 1999, p. 8.
14 Jam News, (2017, June 19) Long live the king! Possible restoration of monarchy considered in Georgia! Available
15 First Channel. (2018, January 12). Patriarchate believes that discussion on drug decriminalization should be
suspended. Available at: https://1tv.ge/en/news/patriarchate-believes-discussion-drug-decriminalization-suspended/
16 First Channel. (2018, January 12). Irakli Kobakhidze - Discussion on drug policy should be continued with
everyone, including the Patriarchate. Available, at: https://1tv.ge/en/news/irakli-kobakhidze-discussion-drug-
17 MDF Georgia.See: Ant-Western Propaganda: http://mdfgeorgia.ge/uploads/Antidasavluri-ENG-web.pdf
18 Zviadauri Ilia, (2013, April 15). The Georgian Orthodox Church: Some Aspects of Its Rhetoric and Practice.
Publication: Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 10 Issue: 70 Available at: https://jamestown.org/program/the-
19 Human Rights Education and Monotoring Center (EMC) Review: Available at: https://emc.org.ge/uploads/products/pdf/February_July_2016.pdf
20 World Council of Church. (2004, January 1). Country Profile: Georgia. Available at:
21 Ecupatria. (2016, October 16). International Commission for Anglican–Orthodox Theo-logical Dialogue
Communiqué. Available at: https://www.ecupatria.org/2016/10/06/international-commission-for-anglican-
22 Journal Jvari Vazisa. Ed. 1998 (1). p.4. (Sermons taken in the villages, called: Ude and Araly)
23 Euronews. (2016). Pope Francis takes first trip to Georgia, but not everyone is happy. [Online Video]. 16 January
2018. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iX_GPNKsV0o. [Accessed: 16 January 2018].
24 Holy Council. 2016. Official Documents of the Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church. Available at:
25 Interview of the Constantinople Patriarchate on TV Imedi. (2017, December 17) Available